Data and Information Scope


Data is a collection of unorganized facts that includes words, numbers, pictures, sounds and videos. A computer manipulates and processes data into information, which is useful. 


Information is a manipulated and organized activity that is meaningful and useful and set to achieve a desired goals or result.

To ascertain the relationship between data and information let us consider the below example 

Types Of Data 

Two types of data can be identified 

1. Source Data 

These are the kinds of data that are being collected e.g. daily classes register of attendance.

  • File Data

They are the kind of the data that been stored for further reference in the file. 

Forms Of Information 

Two main forms of information are mention here:-

A. Written Information

This is the kind of information which is passed through words, pictures, and illustrations. This can be transmitted though hand writing, publications, fax, telex, telegram and computer.

Advantages Of Written Information 

  • Whenever it is written, it remains permanent.
  • It reliable and dependable
  • It can be duplicated in many forms and be shared among folks.
  • It can be edited before issuing-out 
  • Easily be understood once it is clearly written. 

Disadvantages Of Written Information

  • It could not understand by illiterates.
  • If vaguely written it can mislead.
  • It is time wasting before being produced 

B. Oral Information

This is a kind of information which is passed verbally, it could be face-to-face conversation or through telephone. 


  • It is effective and actions are taken abruptly.
  • it is less expensive 
  • it is faster than written information


  • It is temporary in nature therefore reference may not be possible, unless otherwise been recorded on tape.
  • If the information is discovered to be misleading it could be denied easily.
  • The message could be incomplete especially if the sender is in haste. 


This implies producing meaningful information through collecting necessary items of data together and operations to come up desired result. 

Data Processing Methods

  1. Manual Methods 

This is by making use of pencils, pens, worksheets, files, and hand by man to process data. These tools allow recording, calculating, classifying, sorting and presentation of data in a summary format i.e. prose, graphs, diagrams, or tables


  1. Require considerable mental work
  2. They are boring and time consuming 
  3. They are liable to human error.
  4. Electro-Mechanical Methods. 

This involves the use of machines like the typewriter, calculators, accounting machines to process raw data.


  • Large volume of information may not be produced timely and accurately 
  • It is boring and time wasting 
  • Susceptible to human errors as human being is employed.
  • It is noisy and paper consuming 
  1. Electronic Data Processing Method

This is the scientific method of processing procedure followed to come up with reliable and accurate information. We use electronic digital systems and automatic operations to obtain information —- all these features could be found in a computer.  

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